Institute for Poverty Alleviation and
International Development

Yonsei University


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Style Guidelines

Please read these guidelines carefully. The format and style requirements should be followed or your manuscript may be returned.


Manuscripts must be written in English, and authors should ensure their manuscript is grammatical and intelligible. Manuscripts ordinarily will be between 6,000 and 9,000 words, including all notes and references. Manuscripts should be submitted as a single Word document, double-spaced and with consecutive page numbering. Avoid unnecessary formatting for the sake of appearance. The text should be in single-column format. Please use Times New Roman 12-point font throughout the manuscript. Articles should follow the APA style. Reliable information on the APA style is available here.

Cover page

The first page of the document must include the following:

Article title

All author names (with family names indicated clearly), affiliations, and complete postal and email addresses

Telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) for the corresponding author

A brief author biography of 50-75 words for each author. Provide details of position, institutional/organizational affiliation, and other pertinent professional information.


Submissions must include an abstract of no more than 250 words. The abstract should clearly state the article’s central argument and main conclusion(s).


Authors should include a list of up to six keywords indicating the topic of the article.

Spelling and language

Please use good American English throughout. Please be aware that American English uses an -ize rather than -ise ending. Use respectful language that is bias free. Language should be gender-neutral. For example, use “humankind” rather than "mankind." Masculine pronouns should be applied only to males. Non-English words that are not well known to global users of English should be explained within the text and italicized. The author is responsible for ensuring that non-English spelling and transliterations are rendered accurately, and with the system regarded as standard for the discipline.

Title and headings

The article title should be centered 14-point Times New Roman font. Headings should be centered, and in 12-point Times New Roman bold font and set on a line separate from the text. Subheadings should be aligned left, and in 12-point Times New Roman bold font set on a line separate from the text. The use of sub-subheadings should be avoided. If sub-subheadings are necessary, they should be aligned left, and in italicized 12-point Times New Roman font set on a line separate from the text.


The start of a new paragraph should be indicated by indenting the first line 0.5 inch. Justification should be "off", with the right margin uneven. Do not insert an empty line between paragraphs except when there is a heading. In which case, there should be an empty line both above and below the heading.


Please do not use endnotes. Where necessary, use footnotes to elaborate or comment on material in the text. However, the use of footnotes should be kept to a minimum.

Tables and figures

Please keep tables, figures, charts to a minimum. Your text may highlight and summarize the main points in a table but it should not duplicate the detail. All diagrams, charts and graphs should be referred to as figures and consecutively numbered. Provide a descriptive caption below each figure. All tables should be consistent, as simple as possible, and contain only essential data. Tables should include a title above the table. Each figure and table must be given an Arabic numeral, and be referred to in the text. Tables and figures should be placed within the main text, not at the end of the document. The source should be indicated beneath the figure or table, and a citation provided.


The use of appendices should be avoided. If appendices are absolutely necessary, then they should be placed at the end of the document after the reference list.


Spell out only single-digit numbers (1-9) and use numerals for all others. Use numerals for percentages and spell out percent (for instance, 20 percent).


Use a single (not a double) space after a period (full stop), and after commas, colons, semicolons, and so on. Do not put a space in front of a question mark or other punctuation marks.


Use double quotation marks for quoted material within the text. Single quotation marks should only be used for quotes within quotes. Enclose periods and commas within quotation marks. Other punctuation should be outside quotation marks unless part of quoted material. Place direct quotations that are 40 words, or longer, in an indented (0.5 inch) free-standing block, and omit quotation marks. Do not italicize quotes.


Capitalization should be kept to a minimum. Only capitalize titles when preceding the name of a person holding the title. Do not capitalize references to public office holders, such as “legislators” or “presidents.” Do not capitalize theories, models, or diseases. Capitalize terms such as East and Eastern when used in a cultural sense, but not when used to refer to compass directions.


Mathematical equations and expressions of two levels or more should be set on a separate line, with space above and below. Number all equations consistently. Use the correct special characters in all equations.


Only use abbreviations where considered standard. If introducing an unfamiliar abbreviation is necessary, write out in full followed by the abbreviation in parentheses the first time it is used in the text. Similarly, the initial reference to a relatively unfamiliar institution should be written out in full, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses that will be used in subsequent references.


Book, journal, and newspaper titles should be italicized. Avoid extensive use of italics for emphasis. Latin terms that are not generally accepted as English should be italicized.


Write out a series of years in full, e.g. 1823-1878 (not 1823-78). Decades should be referred to without an apostrophe, e.g. the 1960s (not the 1960’s). Specific dates should cite month, day and year in that order, for example, February 14, 2014. References to centuries should be written in full (twenty first century, not 21st century).


References should be cited in the text according to the APA reference system. Use the family name of the author, the date of publication and the page number(s) where a reference is being made to a specific part of a text. For example, (Baek 2004: 21). Page spans in references should be given in full, e.g. (Baek 2004: 21-28 NOT Baek 2004: 21-8). Do not use Ibid. or similar when repeating citations. Simply repeat the citation in full. Multiple citations should be separated with a semi-colon. For example, (Baek 2004: 21; Wang 2007: 12). References to works published in the same year should be cited with an alphabetical indicator, e.g. (Baek 2004a, b). Use et al. within citations where there are three or more authors. However, ensure all author names appear in the relevant entry in the reference list.

Your reference list should begin on a new page with the heading "References" centered at the top of the page, in bold 12-point Times New Roman font. The reference list should include every work cited in the text. Do not include work that does not appear in the text. Ensure that dates, spelling and title used in the text are the same as those in the reference list. The reference list should use a 0.5 inch hanging indent format. List references in alphabetical order by author family name. If you cite more than one work by the same author published in the same year, arrange them alphabetically by title and distinguish them with an a, b, c and so on following the year.

The content and form of the reference list should conform to the examples below.

Journal article

Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33(1), 159-174.

Newspaper article in print

Fuller, T. (2014, February 20). Getting stares on the streets of Cambodia: mass transit. The New York Times, p. A4.

Online news article

Goto, S. (2014, January 31). Japan and China’s great African game. The Japan Times. Retrieved from


Schoneveld, G. C. (2013). The governance of large-scale farmland investments in sub-Saharan Africa: A comparative analysis of the challenges for sustainability. Delft: Eburon Books.

Edited book

Mavrotas, G. (Ed.). (2007). Foreign Aid for Development: Issues, Challenges, and the New Agenda. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Chapter in an edited book

Amanor, K. (2008). The changing face of customary tenure. In J. M. Ubink & K. Amanor (Eds.), Contesting land and custom in Ghana: State, chief, and the citizen (pp. 55-78). Leiden: Leiden University Press.


Alden Wily, L., & Hammond, D. (2001). Land security and the poor in Ghana: Is there a way forward? Accra: Ghana Rural Livelihoods Programme, Department for International Development.

Corporate author (government or private organizations)

Energy Commission, Ghana. (2006). Strategic national energy plan 2006-2020. Accra: Author. Retrieved from http://energycom.gov.gh/files/snep/MAIN%20R EPORT%20f inal%20PD.pdf.

Undated material from website

The World Bank. (2011). Participatory planning and community mobilization. Retrieved December 12, 2013 from http://go.worldbank.org/GFLZR21850.

Conference paper

Ahiataku-Togobo, W., & Twum Addo, K. (2007, November). Framework for preparatory country studies. Paper presented at the international conference, Stakes and Perspectives for Biofuels in Africa, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

Non-English titles

Title of works in languages other than English should be transliterated into Roman script and treated the same as English titles. For all non-English titles, provide an English translation enclosed in brackets without italics or quotation marks.

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Institute for Poverty Alleviation and International Development (IPAID) at Yonsei University

1, Yonseidae-gil, Wonju-si, Gangwon-do, South Korea

강원도 원주시 연세대길1 연세대학교 원주캠퍼스 정의관 316호 빈곤문제국제개발연구원

Phone: +82-33-760-2534, 760-2577, 760-2554, 760-2527  |  Fax: +82-33-760-2572  |  E-mail: ipaid@yonsei.ac.kr

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