IPAID

Institute for Poverty Alleviation and
International Development

Yonsei University

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Volume 9 Number 1 June 2018
Gender Equality and Sustainable Development
Author_ Paloma Duran y Lalaguna and Eketarina Dorodnykh
Pages 1-11
Abstract_ Gender-related constraints have high costs to society in terms of untapped potential in achieving poverty eradication, health, education, food security, environmental and energy sustainability, and economic growth. There is strong evidence that closing gender gap accelerates progress towards the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals. While there has been some progress towards better gender equality, there is much more to be done in abolishing gender discrimination. This paper showcases various approaches and interventions to promote gender equality, implemented by the UN development mechanism, SDG Fund and its precursor the MDG Fund. The case studies represent various geographical regions (Bangladesh, the occupied Palestinian territory, Vietnam, Ethiopia, Bolivia and Nicaragua) and confirm the importance of joint efforts to promote and protect the rights of women and girls with the aim to support sustainable development. Finally, various approaches and interventions to promote gender equality (mainly through capacity development, legislative and policy frameworks, advocacy and communication, increased awareness on gender equality and women empowerment, economic and political empowerment and access to health) confirm that gender equality is a multi-dimensional issue which needs to be addressed by a range of solutions and actors. Sustainable development can never be attained without the empowerment of women and girls. Urgent actions are needed to empower women and girls, ensuring that they have equal opportunities to benefit from development and removing the barriers that prevent them from being full participants in all spheres of society.
Keywords_ Gender, Sustainable Development, Joint Programs, United Nations
 
Volume 9 Number 1 June 2018
An Analysis of Sexual Violence - The Relationship between Sex Crimes and Prostitution in South Korea
Author_ Seo-Young Cho
Pages 12-34
Abstract_ By analyzing the survey data of sex offenders in South Korea, this paper aims to explain how prostitution can be linked to sex crimes. The empirical findings show that buying sex is positively associated with committing a sex crime and the experience of paying for sex with a minor exacerbates the severity of sex crimes. These results indicate that one type of risky sexual behaviors – buying sex – can be aggravated to a more serious type of sexual violence, such as rape. However, these findings are drawn in South Korea where prostitution is prohibited, and the same conclusion may not be replicated in places where the risks of buying sex are minimized through the legalization of prostitution. Nonetheless, the complementary relationship between prostitution and sex crimes found in this paper indicates that allowing commercial sex may not be a viable solution to reduce sex crimes.
Keywords_ Sexual violence, Sex crimes, Prostitution, South Korea
 
Volume 9 Number 1 June 2018
Women Empowerment and Microfinance: A Case from North-Western Bangladesh
Author_ Nahid Akhter
Pages 35-50
Abstract_ In a country like Bangladesh, poverty alleviation is one of the prime concerns of any development plan, where equality and considerable equity needs to be ensured. Women make up nearly half of the population of the country, but they, especially from the poverty-stricken groups, are more vulnerable in terms of denial of fundamental human rights. Microfinance, as a development program, primarily targets the poorer female clients. From a development perspective, it could be anticipated that provision of financial resources and effective utilization of those resources along with group-based activities can strengthen women’s economic roles. In due course, it is also anticipated that it may empower women and reduce inequality. This paper attempts to assess the effectiveness of one special microcredit program (PRIME) in promoting women’s life living in a poverty-stricken area of rural Bangladesh. Taking into consideration the existing complex and conflicting results from the other studies, a total of 54 items have been gathered to address ten empowerment indicators. In order to generate an aggregate index for women empowerment, a popular Item Response Theory (IRT) model namely, the Rasch test for dichotomous responses has been used, which was previously undertaken by a revealing study conducted by Pitt, Khandker and Cartwright (2006). Results remain steady with the view that there is a significant positive association between microcredit and women empowerment.
Keywords_ Women Empowerment, Gender Equality, Microfinance, Poverty, Rasch Test, Bangladesh
 
Volume 9 Number 1 June 2018
Sanitation as Business: Diversifying Income and Livelihoods for Women in Fishing Villages in Uganda
Author_ Frederick Kakembo
Pages 51-67
Abstract_ The paper examines prospects for diversifying income and improving livelihoods for women in fishing villages. It is noted that when social, economic and cultural factors constrain women engagement in the fisheries industry, their livelihood and welfare are affected. Consequently, women are confined to the lower end of supply chains in the fisheries sector. The rapid dwindling of fisheries stocks and the sophisticated export-based fish trade have aggravated the matter. Due to lack of access to economic activities to support them, women resort to selling liquor and commercial sex for survival. In the process, they are exposed to the risk of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. This study investigates prospects of diversifying their income generating activities; based on the concept of Waste-to-Wealth Enterprises (WWE). Baseline surveys and feasibility studies were conducted to assess the viability and feasibility of WWE. Questionnaires, interviews, documents analysis and focus group discussions were used for data collection. For feasibility studies, laboratory tests on Bio-methane Potential (BMP) for different biomass were conducted in the study area. In addition, proof-of-concept pilot projects were established to verify the viability of various WWE projects. Findings reveal that WWE that are economically feasible include: purifying and distributing water; production of briquettes, production of organic detergents and production of biocides for organic farming. It concludes that diversifying livelihood activities for women is feasible and viable. It however entails re-configuration of gender norms, identifying networks for start-up funding, capacity building and establishment of institutional frameworks.
Keywords_ Diversify, Energy, Enterprise, Fisheries, Waste, Women
 
Volume 9 Number 1 June 2018
Gender Equality, Growth and Human Development in India
Author_ Madhusudan Ghosh
Pages 68-87
Abstract_ This article evaluates gender inequalities in education and employment and examines their impacts on economic growth and human development in 15 major states of India. Although the overall gender gap has declined marginally due to reduced gender gaps in political empowerment and educational attainment, it has remained high due to huge gender gaps in other categories. India has attained gender parity in primary and upper primary education and has been moving towards gender equality in literacy. Gender equality in life expectancy has improved modestly at the cost of increasing gender disparity in infant mortality. Despite the increasing literacy rate and educational levels among women, the female labor force participation rate has been declining with increasing gender gaps in wage and income. Gender equalities in literacy and labor force participation rates have positive impacts on per capita income and human development. The results suggest the need for adopting policies to create conditions, which would allow both women and men to realize their full human potential. They also suggest that increasing investment in infrastructure and the social sector could play an important role.
Keywords_ Gender Inequality, Education, Employment, Economic Growth, Human Development, India
 
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IPAID

Institute for Poverty Alleviation and International Development (IPAID) at Yonsei University

1, Yonseidae-gil, Wonju-si, Gangwon-do, South Korea

강원도 원주시 연세대길1 연세대학교 원주캠퍼스 정의관 316호 빈곤문제국제개발연구원

Phone: +82-33-760-2534, 760-2577, 760-2554, 760-2527  |  Fax: +82-33-760-2572  |  E-mail: ipaid@yonsei.ac.kr

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