IPAID

Institute for Poverty Alleviation and
International Development

Yonsei University

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Volume 8 Number 1 June 2017
Decolonizing the Postcolonial University? Possibilities and Exigencies with Evidence from Uganda
Author_ James H. MITTELMAN
Pages 1-48
Abstract_ Decades ago, Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o famously raised the question of decolonizing the mind. Scores of postcolonial intellectuals followed with interventions on unmaking the ways that colonial education had bleached people’s stories embodying cultural inheritance and had caused epistemological violence. But the early postcolonial critics left open the issue of how to decolonize a principal site at which successor generations are taught and learn about civilizational values. What does it mean to decolonize the university in Africa? While many academics shared Ngũgĩ’s hopes for indigenizing learning and called for autonomous discourses, translating them into practice proved to be a daunting task. Given powerful global forces and local interests, it becomes a matter of who owns the university in Africa and who controls the production of narratives. Based on extensive fieldwork on knowledge structures in Uganda, including documentary research and numerous discussions with key stakeholders—governmental ministers, civil servants, upper administration at university, academic and general staff, and students—this paper assesses efforts to meet fundamental challenges common to higher learning in many postcolonial settings, where, like in Uganda, local protagonists are attempting to expand policy space and realize the promise of decolonizing the university.
Keywords_ Higher education, Decolonization, Development, Global South, Globalization, Postcolonial theory
 
Volume 8 Number 1 June 2017
The Poverty–Environment Nexus and the Wealth Paradox: Community Forest Collective Action and Child Labor in Bolivia
Author_ Randall BLUFFSTONE
Pages 49-92
Abstract_ This paper examines the relationship between child labor and forest collective action in community forest settings in the Bolivian Andes. A key part of the poverty–environment nexus literature contends that lack of collective action leads to open access, poor natural resource management and use of more labor to get needed direct use forest values like fuelwood, fodder and grazing. These forest products are known to be critical for rural livelihoods in low-income countries like Bolivia, and child labor is often used to collect them. Though effective collective action curbs open access, it also in the long run increases forest quality, reducing household forest product collection costs. It is therefore not completely clear that open access increases and collective action reduces child labor. This paper tests the hypothesis that better collective action leads to less child labor and extends the so-called wealth paradox literature to include community forest wealth proxied by collective action quality, which I hope offers a significant contribution to the literature. Using several econometric methods, I find that households experiencing more effective collective action generally use more forest-based and total child labor. The results suggest that child labor may be an important disamenity of collective action.
Keywords_ Forests, Collective Action, Bolivia, Child Labor
 
Volume 8 Number 1 June 2017
Patterns and Determinants of Household Income Diversification in Rural Senegal and Kenya
Author_ Sarah ALOBO LOISON & Céline BIGNEBAT
Pages 93-126
Abstract_ Income diversification is considered one of the important household strategies for securing rural livelihoods. We investigate its patterns and determinants using data on 1,747 farm households collected in 2007-2008 from six regions in rural Senegal and Kenya. The empirical investigation shows that the regional variation in income diversification does not follow any clear patterns, with push and pull determinants acting concurrently within and between regions. Therefore, policies on income diversification need to be tailored to meet the development needs of specific regions. More generally, income diversification is significantly associated with household asset endowments, demographic factors, accessibility to rural towns, migration opportunities, and perceptions on food security.
Keywords_ Rural livelihoods, Income diversification, Push and pull determinants, Senegal, Kenya
 
Volume 8 Number 1 June 2017
The EU as an Influencing Force of East African Community Integration? An Analysis of Local Stakeholders’ Perceptions and the Study of Consent
Author_ Nathan VANDEPUTTE & Fabienne BOSSUYT
Pages 127-166
Abstract_ There is consensus in the literature that the European Union (EU) influences the integration processes in Africa, including the East African Community (EAC), through the promotion of its norms and own understanding of integration. With regard to the EAC, the EU promotes a liberal narrative of progressive trade opening and economic liberalization, with a focus on making trade work through infrastructure development (mainly road building) and functional institutions. However, existing research is predominantly EU-centered, and therefore does not take into account the perceptions of the various local stakeholders or it limits itself to the study of the elite, thereby ignoring the internal state–society complexes of regional integration. This article seeks to advance the existing literature by examining to what extent local actors—state and non-state—in Uganda consent with the EU’s promotion of regional integration in its relations with the EAC. This article finds that consent differs from actor to actor and consent differs according to the substance of the EU promotion of regional integration of the EAC, namely infrastructure or institutions.
Keywords_ East African Community, Integration, Local stakeholders, Consent, Economic Partnership Agreement
 
Volume 8 Number 1 June 2017
Poverty Profiles and Coping Strategies of the Haor (Ox-bow lake) Households in Bangladesh
Author_ Mohammad Mizanul Haque KAZAL, Sanzidur RAHMAN & Mohammad Zakir HOSSAIN
Pages 167-191
Abstract_ The study examines the depth and severity of poverty and coping strategies of 4065 households from 30 haor (ox-bow lake) areas from six north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. Results revealed that 29.6% and 43.0% of the surveyed households were below the lower and upper poverty lines based on a Cost of Basic Needs (CBN) method. The depth of poverty was estimated at 7.6% and 12.4% and the severity of poverty at 3.0% and 5.2%, respectively based on lower and upper poverty line estimates, which were substantially higher than the national average for rural areas of Bangladesh. Poverty is relatively higher for the households characterized by landlessness, large family size, lacking durable assets, poor housing and sanitation, NGO membership, wage labor and illiterate heads. Loans from moneylenders and/or relatives, reduction of monthly expenditure and asset sale were the main coping strategies. Policy implications include land reform and tenurial policies aimed at smooth functioning of the land rental market; provision of collateral free credit; investments in employment and income generation activities; provision of skills training; targeted education programs and increased coverage of safety net programs in order to reduce poverty of these highly vulnerable haor residents.
Keywords_ Haor ox-bow lake areas; poverty; severity of poverty, coping strategies; Bangladesh
 
 
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IPAID

Institute for Poverty Alleviation and International Development (IPAID) at Yonsei University

1, Yonseidae-gil, Wonju-si, Gangwon-do, South Korea

강원도 원주시 연세대길1 연세대학교 원주캠퍼스 정의관 316호 빈곤문제국제개발연구원

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