IPAID

Institute for Poverty Alleviation and
International Development

Yonsei University

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Volume 4 Number 1 June 2013
Study on Poverty Risk and Risk Avoidance of People Affected by Housing Relocation due to Urban Construction Projects in China Western Cities
Author_ He Dewen, Li Jingni and Song Fujian
Pages 1-24
Abstract_ With accelerating urbanization in western provinces and cities of China, the number of urban construction projects, such as the old urban area reconstruction project, the development zone construction project, and the infrastructure construction project are on the rise. The project scale has been expanding and the amount of housing relocation involved in construction projects is growing year by year. As a result, more and more people are affected in this process. These people not only include the relocated people as specified by the Regulation on the Dismantlement of Urban Houses, namely, the owner of relocated houses, but also the actual users of the relocated housed who may be affected temporarily or permanently and the people influenced by relocation of houses for business purposes. To properly resettle the affected people in urban relocation projects, maintaining their right for survival and development, providing sustainable development opportunities for them, and eliminating or lowering their poverty risks is helpful for reducing social contradictions and conflicts and avoiding possible social risks. Large-scale construction projects have emerged in western provinces and cities with the implementation of the strategy of Development of Western Regions. Against this background, social risks caused by social contradictions due to relocation activities have occurred from time to time. Low-quality relocation and resettlement have become unstable factors and have stood in the way of harmonious development. Poverty risk of the affected people, as the fundamental and one of the most obvious social risks, relates to their right and interest for survival and development. To study the poverty risk and risk avoidance of people affected by housing relocation due to urban construction projects is helpful for not only maintaining social stability, but also achieving the“People Oriented” goal of urban construction projects. From the perspective of causal relation among the affecting factors for poverty risk of people affected by housing relocation due to urban construction projects, this paper adopts the method of a cause-and-effect tree diagram analysis to study the influence and combined action of four major affecting factors, namely, limitation of resettlement compensation policy objective, production difficulty of affected people, living difficulty of affected people and social marginalization of affected people, as well as the generation of poverty risk. It is found in the study that the limitation of resettlement compensation policy (with housing resettlement as the main objective) objective is the leading factor causing poverty risk. Social policy guidelines shall clearly specify that the government resettlement authorities shall assume main responsibilities in risk avoidance and play a leading role in solving production and living difficulties of affected people and improving the living environment of the vulnerable resettled groups.
Keywords_ Urban relocation project, affected people, poverty risk
 
Volume 4 Number 1 June 2013
The Effect of Socio-Economic Factors on Poverty in Iranian Urban Households in 2010: A Gender Perspective
Author_ Zahra Mila Elmi and Samaneh Ebrahimpour
Pages 25-38
Abstract_ Poverty reduction is the first priority of the Millennium Development Goals. All United Nation member states have to implement sound policies to halve absolute poverty by 2015. Several studies show that female education has a great impact on reducing poverty by reducing the fertility rate, increasing women’s entrepreneurial activities, and assuring better child nourishment and health (Moser 1989; Elson 1998; Khandker and et al. 2003). In this paper, we utilized household survey data in 2010 conducted by the Statistical Center of Iran which covered 18,701 households to show determinant factors of poverty in Iran’s urban areas through the use of a multivariate binary logit model. Our data analysis showed poor households have less education and the regression results showed female headed households are more likely to be poor than households headed by men. Therefore, promoting female education will have a considerable positive impact on poverty alleviation. This policy can also have an impact effect on household size, which is another important determinant of poverty. Because of high correlation between age and experience, we include experience as an explanatory variable in the model. The effect of the experience of the head on poverty was U shaped. It means that in the early years of one’s life, the probability of coming out from poverty is possible while in later years the probability of being poor increases. Therefore, government must pay more attention to poor head of households, especially female ones. Also, the proportion of income earners in a household has a relatively high significant effect on getting out of poverty. This result supports the emphasis on job creation by the government for poverty eradication programs.
Keywords_ Poverty, Iran, female headed household, Logit Model
 
Volume 4 Number 1 June 2013
NGO and Precise Poverty Alleviation in China: A Case Study
Author_ Wenli Han and Xiaomei Liu
Pages 39-58
Abstract_ This paper analyzes the market logic and operating model of precise poverty alleviation programs carried out by a native Chinese NGO in China’s rural areas based on the case study of the BADICAO activity. Research shows, compared to the government, the NGO demonstrates special advantages at the micro operating level in poverty alleviation programs because of its advanced concepts in sustainable development and its precise targeting to assist poverty-stricken people, as well as its mobilization ability of resources in many ways. While for the special national conditions and the administrative management system of China, the development of NGO is still at an immature stage; independence, legality and the acceptance of citizens are the main factors to restrict the further development of the NGO in acting as the main body in poverty alleviation. Policy support and promotion from the government from a macroscopic aspect are very necessary.
Keywords_ NGO, poverty alleviation, “BADICAO”activity
 
Volume 4 Number 1 June 2013
Social Policy and Community Welfare Management for Poverty Reduction in Thai Experiences: An Implication for Asian Countries
Author_ Montri Kunphoommarl and Sirinapa Kunphoommarl
Pages 59-86
Abstract_ This paper aims to provide an overview of the causes, consequences, and social policy of the Thai government towards poverty reduction by examining rural development strategies and experiences during the past two decades. Discussion is focused on the question of universalization of social protection from the national level down to the local level. We use an institutional approach to identify the roles of state administration and community welfare management in social protection schemes for local poor and disadvantaged groups. Social protection schemes will be surveyed in terms of social assistance, social security, and social insurance. Furthermore, community welfare management at the grassroots level in Phitsanulok province has been purposively selected for this paper. The management patterns of active community welfare organizations are described, analyzed, and evaluated in terms of activities implementation, member participation, and impact evaluation to tackle poverty and inequality. Factors affecting the effectiveness of community welfare management are also discussed in detail. Finally, the suggestions are employed in terms of the significant contributions of active participation of concerned stakeholders from Thai cases to other Asian countries.
Keywords_ Poverty reduction, Community welfare, Social protection
 
Volume 4 Number 1 June 2013
How Feasible is China’s Path of “Land for Social Security”?
Author_ Zhi Wang and Yifan Yang
Pages 87-118
Abstract_ The purpose of this paper is to offer political advice and decision making for the reform and development of a social security system for land-lost peasants. At present, some research results and policy designs lack clear plans, which still simply regard the social security system as a supporting policy for land expropriation and separate the relationship between land system, land expropriation, and social security. Based on that, firstly, this paper analyzes the possibility of the system by introducing the successful practice of “Land for Social Security” in China. Secondly, it rethinks hazards and secret worries behind the system from the core views of “compensation or security” and “for social security or transfer the land”. Third, from the perspective of land rent, the article explores how to make “Land for Social Security” more feasible. Finally, based on the dual nature of land, the article puts forward relevant policy suggestions. The conclusion is that to improve the social security measures for land-lost peasants, it is to its own features based on the condition of confirming the special land property rights of both collective and individual.
Keywords_ land expropriation compensation balance urban and rural development compound social security
 
 
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IPAID

Institute for Poverty Alleviation and International Development (IPAID) at Yonsei University

1, Yonseidae-gil, Wonju-si, Gangwon-do, South Korea

강원도 원주시 연세대길1 연세대학교 원주캠퍼스 정의관 316호 빈곤문제국제개발연구원

Phone: +82-33-760-2534, 760-2577, 760-2554, 760-2527  |  Fax: +82-33-760-2572  |  E-mail: ipaid@yonsei.ac.kr

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