IPAID

Institute for Poverty Alleviation and
International Development

Yonsei University

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Volume 1 Number 1 December 2010
Development Disagreements and Water Privatization: Bridging the Divide
Author_ Ravi Kanbur
Pages 1-20
Abstract_ While trade liberalization was perhaps the archetype disagreement on development strategy in the 1980s and 1990s, in the 1990s and 2000s this role has been taken over by water privatization and the passions it arouses. What are the underlying reasons for disagreements on water among those who proclaim to be for poverty reduction? This paper tries to understand the nature of the disagreements and ascribes them to a combination of varying interpretations of the existing empirical evidence and, more importantly, differences in worldview on how to assess what constitutes good development outcomes and on how to achieve them. It is suggested that the way forward lies in a clear understanding of the basis of disagreements, from which, perhaps, a new consensus can be fashioned on water privatization. This paper is based on a talk given to the Cornell Conference on the Ethics of Globalization and Development, September 29-30, 2006.
Keywords_ water privatization, poverty reduction, trade liberalization, water wars
 
Volume 1 Number 1 December 2010
Poverty and Poverty Reduction in Ethiopia
Author_ Tegegne Gebre-Egziabher
Pages 21-54
Abstract_ The pervasiveness and widespread nature of poverty in many developing countries has made countries to focus on poverty reduction as one of their pre-occupations. The different dimension of poverty in Ethiopia shows that it is one of the poorest countries in the world. The low level of income and calorie intake signifies the depth of poverty. Similarly, the low level of nutrition, low access to education and health compounds the problem. Trends in the different indicators of poverty, however, show that Ethiopia is in the trajectory of progress in terms of poverty reduction. In this regard, the formulation and implementation of poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs) have played a role towards betterment of income, health and education. Moreover the country has implemented specific poverty reduction measures that are aimed at direct and indirect attacks of poverty. The direct attacks are those which focus on food security and rural employment creation, urban employment creation and provision of low cost housing while the indirect attacks deal with economic growth and social service provision. Ethiopia needs to strengthen its pro-poor growth policy in order to succeed in reducing poverty.
Keywords_ poverty, poverty trend, poverty reduction, pro-poor growth, poverty reduction strategy papers
 
Volume 1 Number 1 December 2010
Poverty Reduction in Malaysia
Author_ Bethuel Kinyanjui Kinuthia
Pages 55-80
Abstract_ This paper examines the extent to which the pre conditions for poverty reduction as proposed by tracking development were met in Malaysia. Tracking development suggests that for poverty reduction to take place there must be adequate macroeconomic management, economic freedom for peasants and small entrepreneurs and pro poor, pro rural public spending and the three preconditions must be met simultaneously. Malaysia in the last three decades has been able to industrialize as well as reduce poverty levels significantly. Using the Malaysian experience this paper does not find a convincing evidence to support the three hypotheses. There is need to redefine the concept of turning point and the preconditions for poverty reduction as presented by tracking development and some useful thoughts are presented.
Keywords_ poverty reduction, macroeconomic management, economic freedom, pro poor spending, Malaysia
 
Volume 1 Number 1 December 2010
The Identification of Barriers to Agriculture-Tourism Linkages in the U.S. Virgin Islands: Production, Marketing, and Public Policy
Author_ Francis A. Mwaijande, Eric Wailes and Brinck Kerr
Pages 81-104
Abstract_ Identification of barriers for agri-tourism linkages is crucial for developing pro-agricultural growth policies. This paper identifies barriers to the creation of sustainable economic linkages between the agriculture and tourism sectors in the U.S. Virgin Islands. The paper addresses the following research questions: How does one identify barriers to agri-tourism linkages? And if there are barriers, are there policy options that can be implemented to help develop the agri-tourism linkages? Data collected from farmers and policymakers indicate lack of water for irrigation, lack of government support, lack of farm labor, and lack of access to land as the most critical production barriers. On the other hand, farmers, the tourism/hospitality industry, and policymakers indicated that the most critical market barriers were inadequate and inconsistent supply of local food, competition from imported foods, and lack of chef-farmer coordination. All interviewed stakeholders expressed interest in creating agri-tourism linkages. In this article, we offer some policy options to address the identified barriers such as providing infrastructure for irrigation water, enhancement of local government support, and improving the marketing of local foods.
Keywords_ agriculture-tourism, stakeholders, production and marketing barriers, local foods, public policy.
 
Volume 1 Number 1 December 2010
Determinants of Regional Disparity in Kenya
Author_ Jacob C. Ng’ang’a
Pages 105-134
Abstract_ Regional disparity is key development challenge in Kenya. Since regional production defines the relative state of a region’s welfare, this study focuses on factors that influence regional production in accounting for regional disparity in Kenya. These factors include literacy level, parliamentary representation in government, security services, and availability of arable land, electricity connection and access to medical care, financial services, portable water, quality communication and transport infrastructure. The study uses modest analytical tools to determine how poverty level, used as a proxy of regional disparity, is explained by these factors. Overall, about half of Kenyans live below the poverty line and only 38 percent of the population have adequate access to medical care. The average fertility in Kenya is 5.4 with 73 percent of the population being literate and only 7 percent connected to electricity. Further, 76.5 percent and 74.3 percent of Kenyans travel at least 5 kilometres to the nearest post services and tarmac road, respectively. Regression results show that literacy levels, access to medical facilities and credit, proportion of arable land, region’s representation in government and proximity to infrastructure in terms of road, security, communication and water positively relate to the pattern of regional disparity in Kenya. However, relatively better regions in Kenya, in terms of lower poverty levels, are not necessary those with better access to water, security, electricity connection and higher tarmac road density. The study therefore recommends policy reforms that prioritize improvement in health, education and financial services in less developed areas. Specifically, the study proposes identification of a critical minimum literacy level for all districts, with adequate interventions to improve access to education in marginal areas. Similarly the government should liaise with private sector in identifying appropriate incentives to attract investment in financial services in areas not adequately served by the existing financial institutions. Finally, in addition to improving the overall infrastructure, enhancing communication services, through appropriate incentives, is a crucial step in reducing regional disparity in Kenya
Keywords_ regional disparity, poverty index, regression analysis, infrastructure, decentralised funds
 
 
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IPAID

Institute for Poverty Alleviation and International Development (IPAID) at Yonsei University

1, Yonseidae-gil, Wonju-si, Gangwon-do, South Korea

강원도 원주시 연세대길1 연세대학교 원주캠퍼스 정의관 316호 빈곤문제국제개발연구원

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