Volume 4 Number 2 December 2013
A Study on the Factors Influencing Girls’ Transition to Secondary School in Guatemala
Author_ Kristel Andrea Camposeco Castro and Ki Nam Jin
Abstract_ The transition from primary to secondary school is as one of the most important moments in a student’s career, where girls who are most vulnerable of dropping out. Nevertheless, this moment has not been highlighted because primary level enrollment has been prioritized. This study analyzed the factors that influence girls’ transition to secondary school as well as location inequalities, as girls in rural settings proved to be more vulnerable.
Guatemala’s municipalities were the central unit of analysis, divided among rural and urban predominance to evaluate the factors that account for the achievement gap. Standard descriptive statistics, t-tests and finally hierarchical regression were performed to analyze the considered factors in explaining girls´ transition to secondary school. The factors considered within the conducted model explain 52 percent of the predicting power of the variance of girls’ transition to secondary school. More importantly, statistical evidenced proved that: poverty, female literacy rate and the Educational Advancement Index per municipality, are the most decisive predictors of this educational transition.
Keywords_ adolescent girls, transition, secondary school, rural, urban, municipality.
Volume 4 Number 2 December 2013
Improving Healthcare Utilization for Low Income Rural Households: Impact Of Social Insurance Policy
Author_ Osei-Wusu Adjei, David Forkuor and Foster Frempong
Abstract_ This paper underscores the need for all-inclusive social insurance policy for health promotion amongst vulnerable households. It presents experiences from Ghana by analyzing how the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), introduced in 2003 to correct inequities and discrimination in organized healthcare utilization, is making an impact among low income and vulnerable rural households using the specific case of Kintampo Municipality in the middle belt of Ghana where poverty remains high. A sample of 180 households was drawn from NHIS registered households in the study district for data collection using structured interviews, questionnaires and focus group discussions. Data was analyzed around three key parameters: regularity of utilization of healthcare services in times of need, households’ expenditure on healthcare, and health condition of respondents’ households before and after subscription to the NHIS. The paper concludes that holistic social insurance policy should combat affordability, accessibility, and acceptability challenges to healthcare for poor and vulnerable households.
Keywords_ Income Poverty, Rural Households, healthcare utilization, NHIS, Ghana
Volume 4 Number 1 June 2013
Study on Poverty Risk and Risk Avoidance of People Affected by Housing Relocation due to Urban Construction Projects in China Western Cities
Author_ He Dewen, Li Jingni and Song Fujian
Abstract_ With accelerating urbanization in western provinces and cities of China, the number of urban construction projects, such as the old urban area reconstruction project, the development zone construction project, and the infrastructure construction project are on the rise. The project scale has been expanding and the amount of housing relocation involved in construction projects is growing year by year. As a result, more and more people are affected in this process. These people not only include the relocated people as specified by the Regulation on the Dismantlement of Urban Houses, namely, the owner of relocated houses, but also the actual users of the relocated housed who may be affected temporarily or permanently and the people influenced by relocation of houses for business purposes. To properly resettle the affected people in urban relocation projects, maintaining their right for survival and development, providing sustainable development opportunities for them, and eliminating or lowering their poverty risks is helpful for reducing social contradictions and conflicts and avoiding possible social risks. Large-scale construction projects have emerged in western provinces and cities with the implementation of the strategy of Development of Western Regions. Against this background, social risks caused by social contradictions due to relocation activities have occurred from time to time. Low-quality relocation and resettlement have become unstable factors and have stood in the way of harmonious development. Poverty risk of the affected people, as the fundamental and one of the most obvious social risks, relates to their right and interest for survival and development. To study the poverty risk and risk avoidance of people affected by housing relocation due to urban construction projects is helpful for not only maintaining social stability, but also achieving the“People Oriented” goal of urban construction projects. From the perspective of causal relation among the affecting factors for poverty risk of people affected by housing relocation due to urban construction projects, this paper adopts the method of a cause-and-effect tree diagram analysis to study the influence and combined action of four major affecting factors, namely, limitation of resettlement compensation policy objective, production difficulty of affected people, living difficulty of affected people and social marginalization of affected people, as well as the generation of poverty risk. It is found in the study that the limitation of resettlement compensation policy (with housing resettlement as the main objective) objective is the leading factor causing poverty risk. Social policy guidelines shall clearly specify that the government resettlement authorities shall assume main responsibilities in risk avoidance and play a leading role in solving production and living difficulties of affected people and improving the living environment of the vulnerable resettled groups.
Keywords_ Urban relocation project, affected people, poverty risk
Volume 4 Number 1 June 2013
The Effect of Socio-Economic Factors on Poverty in Iranian Urban Households in 2010: A Gender Perspective
Author_ Zahra Mila Elmi and Samaneh Ebrahimpour
Abstract_ Poverty reduction is the first priority of the Millennium Development Goals. All United Nation member states have to implement sound policies to halve absolute poverty by 2015. Several studies show that female education has a great impact on reducing poverty by reducing the fertility rate, increasing women’s entrepreneurial activities, and assuring better child nourishment and health (Moser 1989; Elson 1998; Khandker and et al. 2003). In this paper, we utilized household survey data in 2010 conducted by the Statistical Center of Iran which covered 18,701 households to show determinant factors of poverty in Iran’s urban areas through the use of a multivariate binary logit model. Our data analysis showed poor households have less education and the regression results showed female headed households are more likely to be poor than households headed by men. Therefore, promoting female education will have a considerable positive impact on poverty alleviation. This policy can also have an impact effect on household size, which is another important determinant of
poverty. Because of high correlation between age and experience, we include experience as an explanatory variable in the model. The effect of the experience of the head on poverty was U shaped. It means that in the early years of one’s life, the probability of coming out from poverty is possible while in later years the probability of being poor increases. Therefore, government must pay more attention to poor head of households, especially female ones. Also, the proportion of income earners in a household has a relatively high significant effect on getting out of poverty. This result supports the emphasis on job creation by the government for poverty eradication programs.
Keywords_ Poverty, Iran, female headed household, Logit Model
Volume 4 Number 1 June 2013
NGO and Precise Poverty Alleviation in China: A Case Study
Author_ Wenli Han and Xiaomei Liu
Abstract_ This paper analyzes the market logic and operating model of precise poverty alleviation programs carried out by a native Chinese NGO in China’s rural areas based on the case study of the BADICAO activity. Research shows, compared to the government, the NGO demonstrates special advantages at the micro operating level in poverty alleviation programs because of its advanced concepts in sustainable development and its precise targeting to assist poverty-stricken people, as well as its mobilization ability of resources in many ways. While for the special national conditions and the administrative management system of China, the development of NGO is still at an immature stage; independence, legality and the acceptance of citizens are the main factors to restrict the further development of the NGO in acting as the main body in poverty alleviation. Policy support and promotion from the government from a macroscopic aspect are very necessary.
Keywords_ NGO, poverty alleviation, “BADICAO”activity