Institute for Poverty Alleviation and
International Development

Yonsei University

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Author Title
Total 76
Volume 8 Number 2 December 2017
Drills and Diets, Consumption and Conservation – the Role of Primate Meat in Local Diets in and Around Cross River National Park, Nigeria
Pages 1-28
Abstract_ The study uses household level data from four villages in and around Cross River National Park (CRNP), Nigeria to assess the role of primate meat in local livelihoods and diets. Okwangwo is an enclave community within the national park, Butatong houses the CRNP headquarters. Kanyang1 and Abo Ebam are located farther away from the park. 149 respondents were surveyed. Sale of bushmeat contributed 4 percent of total cash income on average, but is important as a source of protein in the context of poorly developed livestock systems. 98 percent of the households ate bushmeat during the past year and 74 percent hunted for consumption. 77 percent ate meat from primates, although this varied from 53 percent in Butatong to 97 percent in Okwangwo. Differences emerge among the villages with less reliance on bushmeat, less hunting and a dietary shift towards poultry in Butatong. There is no correlation between income levels and consumption of primate meat. The overwhelming motive for eating primate meat was taste preferences. Solutions to unsustainable extraction of primate meat must be sourced in relation to local consumption. Improving access to animal source foods, through widening the livestock basis of local agrarian systems therefore comes across as a primary conservation measure.
Keywords_ Bushmeat, Livelihoods, Hunting, Consumption, Conservation, Livestock
Volume 8 Number 2 December 2017
What are Good Candidates for Vietnam’s Economic Growth Drivers? A Discussion of Services, Informality and Economies of Scope
Author_ Adam FFORDE
Pages 29-54
Abstract_ This paper argues that more attention to economies of scope, especially in services production is needed to explain patterns of economic growth in Vietnam since the early 1990s. Existing studies have mistakenly focused on industrialization as a key growth driver, when contrary to policy, there has been servicization. By surveying some of the large relevant literature and data and discussing the resulting conceptual tangles, this paper argues that this mistake is in fact extremely common in analyses of global patterns of economic development. Other frameworks are clearly needed; therefore, it also considers the idea that analysis of Vietnam’s economic growth should examine potential for economies of scope in traditional family joint production. It is argued that cultural factors support rational decision-making at this level despite absence of a clear cost function, and that this could help explain success and servicization. It then adds-in the issue of informality, to bolster a provisional argument that exploitation of economies of scope, especially in informal services sectors, offer strong explanations for Vietnam’s rapid economic growth after the emergence of a market economy, and the slowdown from around the middle of the ‘noughties’. Further research is clearly needed, both into what caused Vietnam’s ‘economic miracle’ and why the expectation that it was industrialization came to dominate policy analysis.
Keywords_ Vietnam, Transition, Economic Growth, Structural Change, Services Sector, Globalization, Economies of Scope
Volume 8 Number 2 December 2017
Factors Influencing Household Income in Poor Urban Slum Settlements in Bangladesh
Author_ Sanzidur RAHMAN
Pages 55-80
Abstract_ The paper examines the influence of socio-economic factors on monthly total household income in poor urban slum settlements in four secondary cities of Bangladesh (i.e., Tongi, Jessore, Mymensingh and Dinajpur) based on a census survey of 33,049 households using a Tobit model. Results reveal that all levels of education, public sector employment, business, self-employment, homestead land ownership, family size, female occupation and urban agriculture significantly increases income whereas households with female heads, unemployed heads and children under 5 earn significantly less income. Migrant households do not earn significantly less than the local residents. Geographical variation exist as income is significantly higher in Tongi, Jessore and Mymensingh compared to Dinajpur. Policy implications include investments in higher education, expansion of employment opportunities in the public sector, business and self-employment activities, promotion of urban agriculture and targeted programs to enhance women’s employment in order to raise income of these poor urban households.
Keywords_ Household Income, Urban Slum Settlements, Secondary Cities, Tobit Model, Bangladesh
Volume 8 Number 2 December 2017
Purdue University and Catholic Relief Services: A Case Study of University – Non-Governmental Organization Institutional Partnership
Author_ David M. LEEGE and S. Suzanne NIELSEN
Pages 81-106
Abstract_ Collaboration between universities and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) has become more common in international development in recent years. Despite their difference in objectives and structure, both institutions derive benefits from this collaboration, including capacity building, greater access to donor funding and scaled up adoption of technology and innovation in the field. However, most of these relationships are project-based, ad hoc and one-off. As such, they are often subject to frictions common to situations where each institutions’ objectives and interests are not fully transparent. Institutional partnership can help to prevent these tensions from occurring or find solutions quickly when tensions arise. Purdue University and Catholic Relief Services (CRS) have collaborated with each other for over ten years. This collaboration, while initially field based, started to achieve more significant and lasting results after it was formalized through a commitment by senior leadership in both institutions. This case study documents the evolution of this partnership, from its ad hoc origins in the field to a full institutional commitment, and illustrates the lessons learned along the way.
Keywords_ NGO – University Partnerships for Development; NGO – University Operational Research; NGO-University Engagement; ManagementFunctionality of NGO-University Partnerships for Development; Non-Government Organizations and Development; Universities
Volume 8 Number 2 December 2017
Vulnerability to Poverty and Its Determinants in Rural Ethiopia
Author_ Abrham Seyoum TSEHAY
Pages 107-134
Abstract_ This study analyzes the vulnerability to poverty of smallholders in rural Ethiopia using a unique panel dataset, the Ethiopian Rural Household Survey which was collected from 15 peasant Associations covering 1359 households for the years 1994, 1999, 2004 and 2009. Three steps feasible generalized least squares and Principal component approaches are employed for this purpose. The results indicate that smallholders in rural Ethiopia in general are subjected to high levels of vulnerability to poverty as measured by a poverty threshold of 1 USD and a vulnerability threshold of 0. 5 using the consumption based approach. Both poverty incidence and vulnerability to poverty in rural Ethiopia are substantial but have opposite trends across survey rounds. While vulnerability to poverty increases steadily till 2004 before it moderately declines in the last round, the rate of poverty, on the contrary, declined consistently till the third round but considerably increased in the last round. However, vulnerability to poverty prevailed over poverty incidence in all the survey rounds indicating the need to give more focus on precautionary measures than merely safety net programs.
Keywords_ Vulnerability, Multi-dimensional Indices, Panel Data, Ethiopia
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Institute for Poverty Alleviation and International Development (IPAID) at Yonsei University

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강원도 원주시 연세대길1 연세대학교 원주캠퍼스 정의관 316호 빈곤문제국제개발연구원

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