IPAID

Institute for Poverty Alleviation and
International Development

Yonsei University

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Volume 2 Number 2 December 2011
Misrepresentation of Worldwide Governance Indicators in Nigeria
Author_ Jisun Yi
Pages 81-106
Abstract_ This paper raises a question against the assumption that governance indicators might be highly-positively correlated with future economic growth and poverty reduction at the national level. It will analyze the limitations inherent in the construction and use of the World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators when it comes to the nexus between governance and ‘sectorial development’, not the entire economic growth of a nation. Reflecting on the case of Nigeria, the paper will look at the macro-trends of whether recent improved scores in the Worldwide Governance Indicators are correlated with its economic growth. Secondly, looking at the Nigerian agricultural sector and development levels, this paper also examines whether governance betterment shown in those indicators really work for national agricultural development. If not, what are the missing elements of governance that promote national agricultural development and why are they not properly captured by the governance indicators?
Keywords_ agriculture, development, Nigeria, poverty, SSA, WGI
 
Volume 2 Number 1 June 2011
Rural-Urban Population Shifts and Poverty Alleviation in Rural Cameroon
Author_ Francis Menjo Baye and Aloysius Mom Njong
Pages 1-36
Abstract_ This paper uses non-parametric estimates to set poverty lines and assesses the relative importance of within- and between-zone components in accounting for aggregate poverty trends. The Shapley Value decomposition rule and three Cameroon household consumption surveys collected by the Government’s Statistics Office are used. Within-zone effects are more instrumental in accounting for aggregate changes in all the P class of poverty measures than the inter-zone population shifts in the period 1984-2001. The inter-zone effects are, however, non-negligible and systematically contribute in alleviating or at least mitigating rural poverty, while aggravating urban poverty. This result highlights the potential role rural-urban migration might play in alleviating rural poverty. These results have implication for public policy at a more aggregate level that favours agricultural modernisation and transformation as a credible and sustainable means of stimulating economic activities to a scale that can simultaneously bring about agriculture-based industrialisation and address the recurrent hikes in food prices.
Keywords_ Cameroon, household surveys, migration, poverty, Shapley Value Decomposition
 
Volume 2 Number 1 June 2011
Sustainable Development in Africa: State Institutional Capacity and Capability as a Critical Missing Link
Author_ Gelase Mutahaba
Pages 37-70
Abstract_ As African countries fought for independence, the citizens’ dream and expectations were that they would achieve rapid economic and social development, in addition to obtaining political freedom. In Mwalimu Nyerere’s words “the war against Africa’s three enemies (poverty, ignorance and disease), would be easy to fight, having successfully won the war against colonialism”. By the end of 2009 African countries will, on average, have been independent for four decades. Reviews on how well the continent has done in pursuing their citizens’ independence dreams tend to agree that it has not done as well as citizens expected, so the dream is still illusive. While there is considerable debate regarding the reasons for the dismal performance in this regard, it is not my intention to join the debate. Rather I will focus on the extent to which the dismal performance can be explained by what Africa has done or not done in the area of institutional development. The Institutional and Development Economics Group, based at the Governance and Social Development Resource Centre in London posited that the attainment of sustainable development within countries, communities and organizations is to a great extent dependent on a country’s efforts to develop institutional capacity and capability. While the literature has yet to settle on a standard definition of the term “institution” with some authors focusing on formal structures, rules and procedures while others emphasize the informal constraints that limit the attainment of what is formally prescribed all of them acknowledge the importance of effective institutions in achieving organizational goals, (Hirschman, 1993). In this article I share the view that the attainment of the objectives of any organization is greatly dependent on the institutional capacity and capability of that organization and Africa’s dismal performance in achieving sustainable social economic, lies in the fact that it has low institutional capacity.
Keywords_ Africa; institutional development; institutional capacity.
 
Volume 2 Number 1 June 2011
Urban Poverty Alleviation in Ethiopia: Reflections on Government Strategies
Author_ Bikila Hurissa Wolde
Pages 71-96
Abstract_ Rapid urbanization is a universal phenomenon which is often followed by urban poverty particularly in developing countries. The fact that urban areas in Ethiopia are typical homes of poverty is currently attracting the attention of the government and other development partners. Public policies and development plans of the government are incorporating urban poverty alleviation as an important component. Micro and small enterprises and Integrated Housing development are the most important urban poverty alleviation strategies adopted by the Ethiopian government. By creating employment opportunities, generating income for the urban poor and contributing to the urban development, the strategies are believed to reduce urban poverty in Ethiopia. The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the two urban poverty reduction strategies and briefly assess their achievements and challenges. It begins with an introduction and epigrammatic overview of urban poverty in Ethiopia. It then deals with the analysis of the Micro and Small Scale Enterprises (MSE) and Integrated Housing Development Program (IHDP) as poverty alleviation strategies and finally draws relevant conclusions.
Keywords_ Ethiopia, poverty reduction, urban poverty, housing.
 
Volume 2 Number 1 June 2011
Re-approaching Universal Welfare: Reflections and Prospects of the New Rural Pension Policy in Aging China
Author_ Yang Yi-Fan and Xiao Tai-Xi
Pages 97-134
Abstract_ Along with China's in-depth development of reform, it has become difficult to effectively deal with the increasingly austere social risks in the countryside and meet the aged residents’ pressing demands of a pension guarantee. This article seeks to shed light on the development of the Chinese rural pension policy from a growing body of literature. This article argues that the rise of the new rural pension scheme is directly related to the emerging ideas of “social security for all”, which abandons the previous policy idea that farmers could still rely on their land and family supplemented by private commercial insurance. However, even though the state has become more involved with this issue, the old-age security of farmers in rural China is still standing on very thin ice and the prospect for further more active state involvement in long run remains ambiguous due to many restrictive conditions. There should be more attention to crucial groups including those households that practice family planning by having only one child or two girls, the elderly, and households with no children, and concentrate on some policy instruments like old-age allowances, micro-insurance and tax-free saving plans for the aged. All in all, the target is to make the rural social old-age security system match with the traditional family protection, collective mutual aid organizations so as to construct Chinese characteristics of multi-level old-age security system between rural and urban.
Keywords_ China; institutional innovation; rural pension policy
 
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IPAID

Institute for Poverty Alleviation and International Development (IPAID) at Yonsei University

1, Yonseidae-gil, Wonju-si, Gangwon-do, South Korea

강원도 원주시 연세대길1 연세대학교 원주캠퍼스 정의관 316호 빈곤문제국제개발연구원

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